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Symptoms of stress and coping are higher in families of drug and alcohol addicts, when families receive extensive intervention compared to brief
intervention. Self-help materials are just as helpful to families as counseling sessions. Copello, A., Templeton, L., Orford, J., Velleman, R., Patel, A., Moore,
L., Macleod, J., and Godfrey, C. (2008). The relative efficacy of two levels of a primary care intervention for family members affected by the addiction
problem of a close relative: a randomized trial. Addiction, 104(1), 49-58.
When providing counseling about at risk alcohol consumption and the goal is to change, the patient influences the counselor's behavior. Motivational
interviewing has to be relevant to the topic of the interview for the patient's talk about change to occur. Even utterances not related to alcohol topic made a
difference in the talk about changing. Gaume, J., Gmel, G., Faouzi, M., and Daeppen, J-B. (2008). Counsellor behaviours and patient language during brief
motivational interventions: a sequential analysis of speech. Addiction, 103(11), 1793-1800.
Advise giving, drug information and Motivational Interviewing were compared on 16-19 years old students who use cannabis on a weekly basis or more. No
difference was found among the three treatments and there was less commitment motivational interviewing was used. Use of "advice" as a brief intervention
seems more effective with young cannabis users; see McCambridge, J., Slym, R.L., and Strang, J. (2008). Randomized controlled trial of motivational
interviewing compared with drug information and advice for early intervention among young cannabis users. Addiction, 103(11), 1809-1818.
There is a two and three fold risk of not complying to antiretroviral therapy in HIV patients when opioid substitution treatment involves injections. Opioid
substitution treatment without injections had successful results and increased compliance with antiretroviral therapy; see Roux, P., Carrieri, M. P., Villes, V.,
Dellamonica, B., Poizot-Martin, I., Ravaux, I., and Spire, B. (2008). The impact of methadone or buprenorphine treatment and ongoing injection on highly
active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence: evidence from the MANIF2000 cohort study. Addiction, 103(11), 1828-1836.
Slow release oral morphine in opioid addicts is more efficacious than methadone alone; see Kastelic, A., Dubajic, G. and Strbad, E. (2008). Slow-release
oral morphine for maintenance treatment of opioid addicts intolerant to methadone or with inadequate withdrawal suppression. Addiction, 103(11),
Addiction severity increases problem gambling with or without comorbid mental disorders. Rush, B. R., Bassani, D. G.,, Urbanoski, K.A., and Castel, S. (2008).
Influence of co-occurring mental and substance use disorders on the prevalence of problem gambling in Canada. Addiction, 103(11), 1847-1856.
Craving for cigarettes increases when attention had been on "smoking-related pictorial stimuli" than on "neutral pictorial stimuli". Attwood, A. S., O'Sullivan,
H., Leonards, U., Mackintosh, B. and Munafo, M. R. (2008). Attentional bias training and cue reactivity in cigarette smokers. Addiction, 103(11), 1875-1882.
Deficit in Emotional Awareness, Differentiation and Complexity among Substance Dependent Persons
Anxiety and Depression
Irritability in major depression is associated with co-occurrence of anxiety, prior suicide attempts and suicidal ideation; the association is not strong between
irritability and bipolar disorder. Perlis, R. H., fava, M., Trivedi, M. H., Alpert, J., Luther, J. F., Wisniewski, S. R. and Rush, A. J. (2009). Irritability is associated
with anxiety and greater severity, but not bipolar spectrum features, in major depressive disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 119(4), 282-289.
There is gender bias in diagnosis of personality disorder. Males are diagnosed less with histrionic disorder and females less with antisocial personality disorder
when clinicians use the DSM. This does not happen when the five factor model is used; see Samuel, D. B. and Widiger, T. A. (200). Comparative gender bias
in models of personality disorder. see Personality and Mental Health, 3(1), 12-25.
Externalizing behavior is strongly associated with pathological personality traits. Low impulse control, low conscientiousness, and low agreeableness in
interpersonal relationships are also associated with pathological personality traits; see Pryor, L. R., Miller, J. D., Hoffman, B. J. and Harding, H. G. (2009).
Pathological personality traits and externalizing behavior. Personality and Mental Health, 3(1), 26-40.
Subtypes in Borderline Personality Disorder
The authors of the article found the following subtypes in BPD: 'withdrawn-internalizing, severely disturbed-internalizing and anxious-externalizing'. The
subtypes response to treatment differed: reduced dissociation in the withdrawn-internalizing subtype, reduced depression in the anxious-externalizing subtype
and no improvement in the severely disturbed-internalizing subtype. see Digre, E. I., Reece, J., Johnson, A. L. and Thomas, R. A. (2009). Treatment response
in subtypes of borderline personality disorder. Personality and Mental Health, 3(1), 56-67.
Victims of Childhood Sexual Abuse
Therapy containing suggestions may cause false memories of details of the sexual abuse, but not the actuality of the recall itself. On th other hand, self-recall
of the sexual abuse can increase failure to recall that one recalled it previously- without an increase in false memories; see Geraerts, E., Lindsay, D.S.,
Merckelbach, H., Jelicic, M., Raymaekers, L., Arnold, M. M. and Schooler, J. W. (2008). Cognitive Mechanisms Underlying Recovered-Memory Experiences of
Childhood Sexual Abuse. Psych Science, 20(1), 92-98.
Clinical Practice and Treatment of Depression
Risk Factors in Schizophrenia as Diagnosis Criteria in DSM-V?
Study of Personality as a Behavioral Science
Conflict between selfishness and that of behaviors for social acceptance result in self-regulation but depletes the ego