|Research / Special References For NIHARD's Clients, Students, Fellows
Basis for Male - Female Difference in Brain Morphology
Druring prenatal period, gonadal steroids change the neuronal morphology. ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN), including dorsal and lateral to
the VMN, males have more dendritic spine number. Neonatal females treated with Testosterone lost these dentritic spines. When applied to females, estradiol
can increase spinophilin (protein base for dentritic spines), testosterone's aromataze and masculinity. GABAA agonist Muscimol did not, but glutaminergic
AMPA agonist Kainic acid does affect levels of spinophilin protein in both neonatal females and males. Kainic acid acts like estradiol in females by
increasing spinophilin, but AMPA/Kainate antagonist stopped the increase of spinophilin in females but not in males; see Todd, B. J., Schwarz, J. M., Mong,
J. A. and McCarthy, M. M. (2007). Glutamate AMPA/kainate receptors, not GABA(A) receptors, mediate estrodiol-induced sex differences in th hypothalamus.
Developmental Neurobiology, 67(3), 304-315.
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System (Fight and Flight, Approach / Avoidance Systems) & Brain Development
In both peripheral and central nervous system's efferent system, Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is distributed in the sympathetic nerves supplying eyes and
reproductive tract and blood vessels. ATP and acetylcholine (ACh) both release from motor nerves controlling striated muscles and parasympathetic nerves of
the bladder. In both peripheral and central nervous system's afferent system, Adenosine triphosphate and glutamate co-occur in the sensory neurons. Both
ATP and calcitonin peptide and substance P are found in both sensory and motor nerves. ATP, vaso-dilating polypeptides, and nitric oxide co-occur in
noradrenergic - (non) cholinergic inhibitory innervations of the gastric smooth muscles; see Burnstock, G. (2008). Purinergic cotransmission. Experimental
Physiology, 94(1), 20-24.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors produce synchronized waves of activity which mediate development of the nervous system. Early in development
acetylcholine/γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/glycine and then later glutamate/GABA mediate the synchronicity in waves that regulate brain development; see
Mochida, H., Sato, K., and Momose-Sato, Y. (2008). Switching of the transmitters that mediate hindbrain correlated activity in the chick embryo. European
Journal of Neuroscience, 29(1), 14-30.
Brain Blood Circulation
Blood flow velocity in middle Cerebral arteries increases with divided attention, specially on the right side resulting in right answers; see Matteis, M., Bivona,
U., Catani, S., Pasqualetti, P., Formisano, R., Vernieri, F., Troisi, E., Caltagirone, C. and Silvestrini, M. (2008). Functional transcranial Doppler assessment of
cerebral blood flow velocities changes during attention tasks. European Journal of Neurology, 16(1), 81-87.
Authors find, even though found in the past, worth noting that Secretagogin is a marker of neuroblasts that commute rostrally in a migratory stream. Jan
Muldera, Misha Zilberterb, Lauren Spencea, Giuseppe Tortorielloa, Mathias Uhlénc, Yuchio Yanagawad, Fabienne Aujardf, Tomas Hökfelt and Tibor Harkany
(2009, December 29). Secretagogin is a Ca2+-binding protein specifying subpopulations of telencephalic neurons. PNAS, 106(52), 22492-22497.
Besides Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger nuclei for rhythm generation in breathing, outputs to the spinal motoneurones mediating the pattern in inhaling and
exhaling, there are chemoreceptors and O2 sensors in carotid arteries and surface of ventral medulla mediating monitoring of CO2 level- these are affected
by behavioral activity; see Spyer, K. M. (2008). To breathe or not to breathe? That is the question. Experimental Physiology, 94(1), 1-10.
Cerebral Cortex & Executive Control
Top-down executive control of bottom-up stimulus driven behaviors is mediated by left dorsolateral prefrontal activation prior to a discriminant signaling no-
reward, causing lower levels of activation in the pre-supplementary motor area. Prefrontal and midline regions come together to achieve cognitive control;
see Fassbender, C., Hester, R., Murphy, K., Foxe, J.J., Foxe, D. M., and Garavan, H. (2008). Prefrontal and midline interactions mediating behavioural control.
European Journal of Neuroscience, 29(1), 181-187.
Time Perception, Circadian Clock
Pre-frontal cortex (PFC) is functionally involved in time perception. The phasic activity of neurons in the PFC after .8 seconds following signal onset assumes
cognition in action with shorter and longer time duration discrimination process starting right before short and long duration signal is presented; see Oshio, K-i,
Chiba, A. and Inase, M. (2008). Temporal filtering by prefrontal neurons in duration discrimination. European Journal of Neuroscience, 28(11), 2333-2343.
Perception of one's own intention to move seems to happen after the brain activates a movement by about 1 second before that perceptual awareness. When
there is conscious intention for voluntary movement, however, it takes about 1.4 seconds before cued to make the voluntary movement. see Matsuhashi, M.
and Hallett, M. (2008). The timing of the conscious intention to move. European Journal of Neuroscience, 28(11), 2344-2351.
High fat diet increased body mass index, blood glucose, and insulinaemia, and hyperleptinaemia- all of which affected adjustment to local time and
circadian light entrainment, detrimentally. Mendoza, J., Pevet, P. and Challet, E. (2008). High-fat feeding alters the clock synchronization to light. The
Journal of Physiology, 586(24), 5901-5910.
Climing fibers are excitatory projections into the cerebellum. These fibers pair with Purkenjie nerve cells postnatal in a calcium influx dependant long-term
potentiation and presynaptic plasticity and then decouple with maturation and learning in long-term depression. These are dependant upon synaptic
connections strength; see Ohtsuki, G. and Hirano, T. (2008). Bidirectional plasticity at developing climbing fiber–Purkinje neuron synapses. European Journal
of Neuroscience, 28(12), 2393-2400.
Stress and the Brain
Stress and restraining activates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, corticotropin-releasing factor, causing oxidative stress of the cortical neurons and
reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 which increases b-Amyloid plaque, tau, and cortical atrophy seen in Alzheimer's disease; see Lee, K-W. et al. (2008).
Behavioral stress accelerates plaque pathogenesis in the brain of Tg2576 mice via generation of metabolic oxidative stress. Journal of Neurochemistry, 108
Anxiety, Fear, Post-Trauma, Panic and the Brain
Freezing response indicates fear and anxiety. Bred for high anxiety (trait anxiety), Wistar rats did not unlearn a learned fear. The main pre-frontal-amygdala
pathways mediate the unlearning or extinction of fear. The high anxious showed a reduction of c-Fos protein expression in the inferior limbic, cingulate and
lateral amygdala but an enhanced expression of c-Fos in the medial part of central amygdala. Thus, the failure to show extinction of fear (desensitization) is
related to activation of prefrontal-amygdala circuit, also involved in addiction pathways. Muigg, P., Hetzenauer, A., Hauer, G., Hauschild, M., Gaburro, S.,
Frank, E., Landgraf, R., Singewald, N. (2008). Impaired extinction of learned fear in rats selectively bred for high anxiety – evidence of altered neuronal
processing in prefrontal-amygdala pathways. European Journal of Neuroscience, 28(11), 2299-2309.
Addiction & The Brain
Stimuli that are associated with ethanol (alcohol), even sight of alcohol, can trigger alcohol seeking relapse in the environment where alcohol was once
consumed. Activity in the nucleus accumbens core, not the shell, mediates this effect. The shell of the nucleus accumbens inhibits seeking responses in that
context. Chaudhri, N., Sahuque, L. L., Cone, J. J., Janak, P. H. (2008). Reinstated ethanol-seeking in rats is modulated by environmental context and requires
the nucleus accumbens core. European Journal of Neuroscience, 28(11), 2288-2298.
Eating Disorder & The Brain
Woman with Bulimia Nervosa show more errors in conflicting tasks because of being impulsive, impaired self-regulation mediated by under-activation of
frontostriatal brain areas and activation of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann Area- BA 32). see Marsh, R. Steinglass, JE. Gerber, AJ, Graziano, O-L,K,
Wang, Z, Murphy, D, Walsh, BT, and Peterson, BS (2009). Deficient activity in the neural systems that mediate self-regulatory control in bulimia nervosa. Arch
Gen Psychiatry, 66(1), 51-63.
Hippocampus and the Memory
Grid Cells, Self-Organizing Memory, Memory Generalization, Self-Learning, Auto-Learning without Environmental Input to Guide
Memory of Time and Space: Medial Temporal Lobe & Memory of Episodes Past
Charles Darwin's Theory at 150
The Future of Human Evolution
Creationism, Evolution and Intelligence Design
Evolution in the Next 200 Years
Evolution of Emotion: Darwin's Early Experiment on Emotion Recognition
Extension of Life
Brain Aging and Blood Sugar
Glucose Inhibited Neurons
Fasting every 3 days can extend life by 50%!?
Relations between Stroke & Cancer
Infections and Cancer, Professor Harald Zur Hausen, Uppsala University (Video)
HIV Pathogenesis, Professor Francoise Barre - Sinoussi, Uppsala University (Video)
Science News / Research Links
Spirituality, Mind, Brain & Body: United Nations Symposium
Government Run Trials
NIH on Brain Connections
Table of Factors for Schizophrenia
Drug Table for Schizophrenia
Neurodevelopment of Schizophrenia (Slides & Audio, Kevin Spencer)
Abnormal Neuro-Synchrony in Schizophrenia (Slides & Audio, Peter Uhlhaas)
Search on the Internet for Health Concerns Can Cause Stress (60 Sec.)
Treatment of Migraine Headaches with Low Dose Histamine
Traumatic Brain Injury I
Traumatic Brain Injury II
Latest on Epilepsy
Benzodiazepines & Epilepsy: Withdrawal & Convulsion
Neuroprosthetics & Nanotechnology
Head and Brain Injury Do not Cause Headaches the Post Stress Does
International Headache Society: Treatment for Headaches (Slide Presentation)
Brain Implants and Deep Brain Stimulation
Intelligence in Animal Kingdom
Glial Cells Help Sensory Neurons Find a Needle in a Hay Stack
Acetylcholine (Adrenergic) Mediates Attention and Encoding of Stimulus Features, not Their Retrieval
Optimal Level of GABA for Learning & Memory: Where Learning Increases GABA, too much GABA Detrimental to Memory Performance (Evidence for
In-Group - Out-Group Bias and the Brain
Brain Convolutions & Abnormalities
Stereotypic Motor Behaviors in Autism & Developmental Disorders
Honey Bee Dance ("H. Esch 1970"..P) may communicate location of food. How about communicating to the followers to get out of the hive- the waggle
dance may be a graphical language, a diagram of the hive-comb's "cell" and to show how to come out of their comb's cell area (K.L., September 25, 2009)
Omega-3 Fatty Acids Reduce Depression
Neurochemical Diagnosis of Parkinson / Dementia
Blood / Plasma / Serum Tests for Alzheimer's Disease: Biological Markers
Sex hormones inhibit brain inflammation ( http://126.96.36.199/technology/biotech_pharma/20110513_brainInflammation.html )
Movies of Interest
List of Brain and Behavior Related Movies
"Inner Workings of the Brain: Structure & Function"
Inner Workings of the Brain: Cognition
AMERICAN PSYCH ASSOCIATION
ASSOCIATION FOR PSYCH SCIENCE
ASSOCIATION FOR BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS INTERNATIONAL
APA DIVISION 6
APA DIVISION 36
BOARD OF PSYCH
LOS ANGELES DEPARTMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH
SCIENCE ADVISORY BOARD
SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH FORUM
|R Sex - Aggression
o Male-Female, Female-Female, Male-Male Interactions
Anterior Brain Areas
Orientation Locomotion Approach Avoidance Axial Lateral Displays Lateral Lines
Posterior Brain Areas
A Few of Kiumars Lalezarzadeh, Ph.D. (NIHARD) Peer Reviewed Commentaries and Contributions
The Science Advisory Board Forum Activity
Environmental Adaptation Improves Performance in Elderly & Alzheimer Patients
Long-Term memory Can Remain Intact in Alzheimer's Disease
Differentiating Different Types of Dementia from Alzheimer's Disease
Detecting Early Onset Alzheimer's Disease
Visual Search & Speed with Obligation (as Opposed to Choice) Improves Performance on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living In Elderly
Marijuana (Cannabinoids) and the Brain
Histamine Can Improve Balance
Environmental Enrichment, Depression, Serotonin, Alzheimer's, Neurogenesis and Memory
Memory Enhancement in Alzheimer's Disease Brain